Learn about PCOS and PCOD, common hormonal disorders affecting women’s reproductive health, their symptoms, causes, and effective treatment options at our clinic.

What is PCOS and PCOD

PCOS or PCOD is a condition impacting women’s ovaries, which produce essential hormones like progesterone, estrogen, inhibin, relaxin, and androgens. It disrupts the menstrual cycle and fertility due to hormonal imbalance, characterized by elevated levels of male hormones.

Around 10% of women worldwide suffer from PCOD, with those affected by PCOS experiencing more pronounced androgen production, leading to irregular periods and reduced fertility. This condition poses challenges for conception, often requiring medical intervention to manage symptoms and improve chances of pregnancy. Understanding the symptoms, causes, and treatment options is crucial for women affected by PCOD or PCOS to effectively manage their reproductive health and overall well-being.

PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment along with weight loss may reduce the risk of long-term complications such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.


Signs and symptoms of PCOS often develop around the time of the first menstrual period during puberty. Sometimes PCOS develops later, for example, in response to substantial weight gain.Pcos

Signs and symptoms of PCOS vary. A diagnosis of PCOS is made when you experience at least two of these signs:

  • Irregular periods: Infrequent, irregular, or prolonged menstrual cycles are the most common sign of PCOS. For example, you might have fewer than nine periods a year, more than 35 days between periods, and abnormally heavy periods.
  • Excess androgen: Elevated levels of male hormone may result in physical signs, such as excess facial and body hair (hirsutism), and occasionally severe acne and male-pattern baldness.
  • Polycystic ovaries: Your ovaries might be enlarged and contain follicles that surround the eggs. As a result, the ovaries might fail to function regularly.

PCOS signs and symptoms are typically more severe if you’re obese.


The exact cause of PCOS isn’t known. Factors that might play a role include:

  • Excess insulin: Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells to use sugar, your body’s primary energy supply. If your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, then your blood sugar levels can rise and your body might produce more insulin. Excess insulin might increase androgen production, causing difficulty with ovulation.
  • Low-grade inflammation: This term is used to describe white blood cells’ production of substances to fight infection. Research has shown that women with PCOS have a type of low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens, which can lead to heart and blood vessel problems.
  • Research suggests that certain genes might be linked to PCOS.
  • Excess androgen: The ovaries produce abnormally high levels of androgen, resulting in hirsutism and acne.

Complications of PCOS can include:

  • Infertility
  • Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
  • Miscarriage or premature birth
  • Non-alcoholic state hepatitis — a severe liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver
  • Metabolic syndrome — a cluster of conditions including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that significantly increase your risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes
  • Sleep apnea
  • Depression, anxiety, and eating disorders
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  • Cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer)

Obesity is associated with PCOS and can worsen complications of the disorder.

PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disorder)

PCOD, or Polycystic Ovarian Disorder, is a hormonal condition affecting women of reproductive age. It is characterized by hormonal imbalances that lead to irregular menstrual cycles, cysts on the ovaries, and increased production of male hormones (androgens). Symptoms may include irregular periods, weight gain, acne, and difficulty conceiving.

Treatment focuses on managing symptoms and may involve lifestyle changes, medications to regulate hormones, and fertility treatments for those trying to conceive.


Polycystic Ovarian Disorder (PCOD) presents with various symptoms that can impact a woman’s reproductive health and overall well-being.
Pcos And Pcod

The three primary symptoms include irregular menstrual cycles, excess androgen production, and ovarian cysts.

  • Hormonal Imbalance: Women with PCOD often exhibit higher levels of androgens, such as testosterone, compared to women without the condition. This hormonal imbalance can lead to symptoms like acne, oily skin, and excess facial or body hair (hirsutism).
  • Weight Gain: Weight gain and difficulty in managing weight are common symptoms of PCOD, often exacerbated by insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels, but women with PCOD may develop insulin resistance, where their cells become less responsive to insulin.
  • Irregular Menstrual Cycles: Women with PCOD often experience irregular periods, which may manifest as cycles that are either shorter or longer than the average 28 days. Some women may skip periods altogether.

Factors that might play a role include:

  • Androgen Overproduction: Elevated androgen levels from the ovaries can disrupt the ovulation process in PCOD. This excess androgen production hinders regular egg development and release from ovarian follicles, thereby causing infertility.
  • Family History: Research indicates specific genetic links to PCOS, making individuals with a family history of the condition more susceptible to its development.
  • Lifestyle Factors: Unhealthy habits like poor diet, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption can exacerbate insulin irregularities, further complicating symptoms associated with PCOD

Complications of PCOD can include:

  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Insulin resistance associated with PCOD can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes.
  • Women with PCOD are at higher risk of heart disease and stroke due to metabolic abnormalities and hormonal imbalances.
  • Irregular menstrual cycles and prolonged exposure to high levels of estrogen without progesterone can increase the risk of endometrial cancer.
  • PCOD is associated with an increased risk of sleep apnea, a condition characterized by interrupted breathing during sleep.
  • Hormonal imbalances and the emotional impact of PCOS symptoms can contribute to mental health disorders.
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • High Blood Pressure

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